Impoliteness Triggers and Strategies in Students’ Complaints: A Socio-Pragmatic Analysis

Authors

  • Mark Aaron A. Dacalanio College of Teacher Education, University of Mindanao, Davao City, Philippines
  • Shine M. Cani College of Teacher Education, University of Mindanao, Davao City, Philippines
  • Grachelle T. Osiba College of Teacher Education, University of Mindanao, Davao City, Philippines
  • Christian Jay O. Syting College of Teacher Education, University of Mindanao, Davao City, Philippines
https://doi.org/10.54012/jcell.v4i1.308
Abstract views: 26


PDF downloads: 12


Keywords:

complaints, impoliteness, social media, socio-pragmatic analysis, Philippines

Abstract

This socio-pragmatic study aimed to unearth the impolite triggers and strategies used in students' complaints extracted from 100 online student complaints. Using Culpeper's Impoliteness Theory (1996, 2011, 2016), the study identified various impoliteness triggers, namely conventionalized and non-conventionalized impoliteness triggers. The former includes pointed criticisms,  condescension, insults, unpalatable questions, dismissals, message enforcers, threats, silencers, negative expressives, redundant patterning, and fighting words. On the other hand, the latter involves non-conventionalized impoliteness triggers, which involve form-driven and bald-on-record impoliteness, red herrings, convention-driven impoliteness, rhetorical questions, and inflammatory expressions. In terms of impoliteness strategies, the study found the use of bald-on-record impoliteness, positive impoliteness, negative impoliteness, and sarcasm or mock impoliteness, with withhold impoliteness not observed in the online context. Understanding the linguistic patterns of impolite complaints in online contexts can help formulate strategies to mitigate conflict and promote more constructive interaction among students. This study may provide valuable insights for improving digital discourse and social interaction protocols.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Acheampong, D. O., & Kwarteng, M. (2021). A pragmatic analysis of impoliteness in

selected Ghanaian social interactions. Journal of English Language Teaching and

Applied Linguistics, 3(3), 32-40. https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.3.5

Arndt, H., & Janney, R. W. (1987). Intergrammar: Toward an Integrative Model of

Verbal, Prosodic and Kinesic Choices in Speech (Studies in Anthropological

Linguistics 2). New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Aydinoglu, N. (2013). Politeness and Impoliteness Strategies: An Analysis of Gender

Differences in Geralyn I. Horton's Plays. Procedia- Social and Behavioral

Sciences, 83, 473-482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.093

Banguis, J., Divino, P. F., Syting, C. J. O., & Maintang, K. C. (2023). Students’ E-

complaints on the Promises and Pitfalls of Blended Learning: A Socio-Pragmatic

Analysis. Journal Corner of Education, Linguistics, and Literature, 3(2), 205-

https://doi.org/10.54012/jcell.v3i2.225

Bavelas, J., & Chovil, N. (2000). Visible acts of meaning: An integrated message model

of language in face-to-face dialogue. Journal of Language and Social Psychology,

, 163-194. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x00019002001

Benabdellah, F. (2018). Impoliteness strategies and gender differences among Disney

Modern protagonists. European Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 3(4), 40.

https://doi.org/10.26417/ejms.v3i4.p40-50

Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage

(Vol. 4). Cambridge university press.

Culpeper, J. (2011). Politeness and impoliteness. Pragmatics of Society.

https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110214420

Culpeper, J. (2008). Reflections on impoliteness, relational work, and power. De

Gruyter Mouton.

Culpeper, J. (1996). Towards an anatomy of impoliteness. Journal of Pragmatics, 25,

-367.

Culpeper, J., Bousfield, D., & Wichmann, A. (2003). Impoliteness revisited: With

special reference to dynamic and prosodic aspects. Journal of pragmatics, 35(10-

, 1545-1579.

Culpeper, J. (2016). Impoliteness strategies. Interdisciplinary studies in pragmatics,

culture and society, 421-445.

Gard, S. W. (1980). Fighting words as free speech. Wash. ULQ, 58, 531.

Ghani, N. (2018). Online Animosity: Impoliteness Strategies and Triggers of Hostility

in a Social Networking Site in Brunei.

Ibrahim, A. H. (2020). A Socio-Linguistic Analysis of Impoliteness in Political Tweets.

International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 11(1), 64-79.

Ismail, I. N., & Shanmuganathan, T. (2019). Face Threats in Threads: Assessing the

Responses to Impoliteness in Facebook Comments on 1MDB. 3L: Language,

Linguistics, Literature, 25(4).

Jane Xavierine, M. (2017). Impoliteness strategies in the social media comments on

the Low Yat plaza incident. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Malaya).

Kariithi, F. (2020). Aspects of Impoliteness during 2007 and 2013 Presidential

Campaigns in Kenya.

Kim, D. Y. (2008). A study of complaint strategies for EFL college learners. 9(2), 58-

Koshik, I. (2005). Beyond Rhetorical Questions: Assertive Questions in Everyday

Interaction (Vol. 160). John Benjamins Publishing.

Leech, G. (1983). Principles of Pragmatics. USA: Longman Limited.

Loewen, S. C. (2016). Psychology of Sarcasm—Dealing With Sarcastic People. Retrieved

from http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/15845/1/Psychology-of-Sarcasm--

Dealing-With-Sarcastic-People.html

Merzah, S. K., & Abbas, N. F. (2020). Deception in Flynn’s psychological thriller

Gone Girl (2012): A pragma-stylistic analysis. European Journal of Literature,

Language and Linguistics Studies, 3(4).

Nieto, V. (2020). Defamation as a Language Crime: A Sociopragmatic Approach to

Defamation Cases in the High Courts of Justice of Spain. International Journal of

Language & Law.

Nikoobin, A., & Shahrokhi, M. (2017). Impoliteness in the realization of complaint

Speech Acts: A Comparative study of Iranian EFL learners and Native English

speakers. International Journal of English Linguistics, 7(2), 32.

https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v7n2p32

Rohde, H. (2006). Rhetorical questions as redundant interrogatives. San Diego

Linguistics Papers, 2, 134-168.

Rosen, R. M., & Rosenberg, C. B. (2002). Suing anonymous defendants for Internet

defamation. COMPUTER AND INTERNET LAWYER, 19, 9-13.

Schroter. (2013). Silence and Concealment in Political Discourse. Amsterdam: John

Benjamins Publishing Company.

Shuy, R. W. (2010). Terrorism and forensic linguistics Linguistics and terrorism cases.

In The Routledge handbook of forensic linguistics (pp. 586-603). Routledge.

Sperber, D., & Wilson, D. (1986). Relevance: Communication and cognition (Vol.

. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Syting, C. J. O. (2018). Politeness strategies in classroom interaction: a discourse

analysis. Tin-aw, 2(1), 1-1.

Syting, C. J., & Gildore, P. J. (2022). Teachers’ Linguistic Politeness in Classroom

Interaction: A Pragmatic Analysis. World Journal of English Language, 12(8),

-141.

Terkourafi, M., Catedral, L., Haider, I., Karimzad, F., Melgares, J., Mostacero-Pinilla,

C., & Weissman, B. (2018). Uncivil Twitter: A sociopragmatic analysis. Journal

of Language Aggression and Conflict, 6(1), 26-57.

https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.00002.ter

Wijayanto, A., Prasetyarini, A., & Hikmat, M. H. (2017). Impoliteness in EFL:

Foreign language learners’ complaining behaviors across social distance and

status levels. Sage Open, 7(3), 2158244017732816.

Wijayanto, A., Hikmat, M. H., & Prasetyarini, A. (2018). Impoliteness in English as a

Foreign Language Complaints: Exploring Its Intentions and Motivating Factors.

Online Submission, 12(1), 97-104.

Ziegele, M. (2016). Nutzerkommentare als Anschlusskommunikation. Theorie und

qualitative Analyse des Diskussionswerts von Online-Nachrichten. [User

comments as follow-up communication. Theory and qualitative analysis of the

discussion value of online news.] Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer.

Downloads

Published

2024-07-09

How to Cite

Dacalanio, M. A. A. ., Cani, S. M. ., Osiba, G. T. ., & Syting, C. J. O. . (2024). Impoliteness Triggers and Strategies in Students’ Complaints: A Socio-Pragmatic Analysis. Journal Corner of Education, Linguistics, and Literature, 4(1), 56–74. https://doi.org/10.54012/jcell.v4i1.308

Issue

Section

Articles